Wednesday, March 7, 2018

Arky Vaughan

After Arky Vaughan died in a freak fishing accident in the summer of 1952 he was rightfully remembered as an All-Star infielder and batting champion for the Pirates and Dodgers. As the years passed his career was lauded as worthy of the Hall of Fame, and he was eventually enshrined there.  Missing from that narrative was Vaughan's role in the 1949 San Francisco Seals tour of Japan.

Arky (real name Joseph Floyd) never even made it to Japan, even if his fame preceded him.

After three years off from baseball, he had come back to the Dodgers in 1947, where he would get to play in the only World Series of his career.  Despite a resurgent spring that left him with a .325 average at the end of '47, he spent a less than stellar two year stint with Brooklyn.  At the close of the 1948 season, he was seemingly at the point of ending a stellar career.  Thought a star in his day, modern metrics reveal a career even more valuable than most contemporaries considered.  He never won an MVP, but was a consistent leader in  OPS and, as measured today, WAR, finishing his career with 72.9 according to Baseball Reference.

At the start of 1949 Vaughan decided to play one more season in the sun, but this time closer to home.  He signed on with the San Francisco Seals of the Pacific Coast League and would eventually play in 97 games, roughly half of the teams games that season.  Though he hit .288 with 6 triples, he was already set to hang up his spikes by July, telling reporters "when this season is over I'm going back to my home in Uklah (120 miles north of San Francisco) and buying another cattle ranch."  He sat out almost the entire month of August before hanging it up officially on September 3, citing a gall bladder issue.  He would be comfortably resting in Northern California when the Seals were welcomed by thousands of fans in a parade through Tokyo on October 12.

The Seals won 10 games and lost 1 during their trip through Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka and Kobe.  They faced an All-Star team composed of the stars of Japan in 1949, including Makoto Kozuru, Kaoru Betto, Tetsuharu Kawakami and Noboru Aota, as well as the Yomiuri Giants and Army/Navy/Air Force squads. Almost every game sold out, with some games drawing nearly 60,000 fans who waited in overnight lines to obtain tickets.

Several sets of menko cards were produced in the time leading up to and during the Seals tour of Japan, including the set cataloged as JCM 50, which features the card pictured above of Vaughan.  This was not the only set featuring Vaughan, though most known sets included only the players who played in Japan, such as Al Lein, Con Dempsey and Dino Rostelli, as well as Lefty O'Doul.

If he had made the trip, he would have been the most famous player, and, next to O'Doul, the most well known American baseball figure to have visited Japan since the 1934 tour featuring the likes of Ruth, Gehrig, Foxx and company.  So it makes sense that, even with his absence, his likeness would make the trip.

More on the '49 tour to come, as well as part 2 of the history of the Two League system.

Friday, January 19, 2018

Hall of Fame Class 2018

     Though Hideki Matsui will most likely not be elected to the US Hall of Fame in 2018, Matsui, along with Tomoaki Kanemoto, Tatsunori Hara and Masao Taki were elected to the Hall of Fame in Tokyo on Monday, Jan. 15.  The results of the Players Division show Matsui earning 91.3% of the vote and Kanemoto 75.5%, while Hara earned 78.7% of the Expert Division vote and Taki over 75% of the Special Division vote.  Kazuyoshi Tatsunami and Hiroshi Gondo were within 10% of the vote of being elected.  All four will be inducted this summer.
     Hideki Matsui becomes the first position player to be elected the Hall of Fame who spent a large portion of his career in the US.  Hideo Nomo was the first pitcher, and Lefty O'Doul the first contributor.  Before a stellar career in MLB, Matsui won 3 MVPs while hitting 332 home runs, including 4 in the Koshien tournaments (one of which earned him the moniker 'Godzilla'), four Japan Series home runs, and eight All Star homers to go along with his 332 career regular season homers.
     He went on to help the Yankees win two pennants and a Series, winning a Series MVP in the process, and hit enough dingers in MLB to end up with over 500 for his career between the two leagues.
     In You Gotta Have Wa, Robert Whiting wrote that "the traditional Japanese ideal is a humble, uncomplaining, obedient soul like Giants star Tatsunori Hara, who was once chosen in a poll as the 'male symbol of Japan'."
     Whiting continued "Hara went on to have many fine seasons", winning an MVP in 1983 "while helping the Giants win the pennant.  But fans, commentators, and coaches were never satisfied.  They complained that he struck out too often in key situations, that he couldn't hit a decent forkball, that he couldn't hit the 40-homer mark.  He did not have the mark of greatness of an Oh or Nagashima."
     Yet he set a record slamming 20 or more homers in each of his first 12 seasons, and finished  his career sporting a .279/.355/.523 line with 382 homers and 11 All Star Appearances. 
     However, he enters the Hall as a manager, and not as a player (though he came close in his last election as one), bringing 7 pennants and 3 Japan Series titles to the same Giants team for which he hit cleanup for so many years.
     The criticism Hara received while a player, that he was "not tough enough", led to all sorts of remedies taken by coaches, including being sent on a spiritual mountain retreat ["yamagomori"] and "minute of analyses of Hara's batting form", that furthered notions he was "overcoached".  This experience may have influenced his managing philosophy, and led to his success in the dugout.
     The election of Tomoaki Kanemoto is no surprise.  He finished a stellar career with Hiroshima and Hanshin among the all time leaders in hits, homers, and RBIs, as well as setting records for consecutive innings and games played.  Like Matsui, he has four Japan Series homers.  He hit for the cycle in 1999 and added the 2005 MVP to his seven Best Nine selections.
     Masao Taki, elected by the Special Selection Committee, spent his career playing and coaching university and high school level baseball, appearing at many Spring and Summer Koshien's..

Monday, January 16, 2017

Hall of Fame Class of 2017

Today the Hall of Fame in Tokyo announced that Senichi Hoshino (right), Masaji Hiromatsu, Tsutomu Itoh, Hiroshi Goshi and Merie Suzuki were elected as the 2017 Hall of Fame Class.  Itoh had received the most votes last year of all candidates not elected in the Players Division.  Similarly, Hoshino and Hiromatsu were the leading vote getters among the Expert Division class not elected last year.

Senichi Hoshino (left) played shortstop for Korashiki High School before taking the mound at Meiji University, where he pitched a no-hitter against rival Rikkio University.  Drafted by Chuinichi in 1968, he was a six time all star, who led the league in saves while also posting a 15-9 record in 1974 to win the Sawamura Award.  After retiring he was a commentator for NHK before going on to manage the Dragons, Tigers and Golden Eagles, accumulating 4 pennants and one Japan Series title.

Masaji Hiramatsu (right, and at bottom) won a Koshien Tournement before going on to win a Sawamura award for the Whales.  An eight time all star, he would go on to win just over 200 games, while also setting a Central League record for hit batsmen.  Hiramatsu was also solid at the plate, hitting 25 career home runs. He became a television analyst after retiring in 1984.

Drafted out of High School, Tsutomu Itoh (left) would go on to lead the great Lions teams of the late 1980s and early 1990s as a superb handlers of pitchers.  In addition to his pitch handling, Itoh was the best fielding catcher of his day, setting multiple records for errorless chances and fielding percentage.  He was also good with a bat, hitting 156 lifetime home runs while setting a record for sacrifice bunts.  He acknowledged Wally Yonamine, as well as Tetsuharu Kawakami and Tatsro Hirooka, in his remarks after learning of his election.

Hiroshi Goshi was a longtime Koshien Tournament umpire, and Mirei Suzuki contributed to the improvement and understanding of baseball rules.  For more see the Japan Hall of Fame website.

Sunday, January 8, 2017

Daryl Spencer

Daryl Spencer, who played for the Giants, Cardinals, Dodgers and Reds before leading the Hankyu Braves to their first ever pennant in 1967, died last week.  He was 88.  Though the Braves lost the 1967 Japan Series to the V-9 Giants, Spencer hit 3 home runs in the 6 game series, and would go on to lead the Braves to three more post-season births.

Spencer hit over 100 home runs in a military-service interrupted MLB career, including the first major league home run on the West Coast, for the Giants in 1958.  That he hit it in Seals Stadium, home to the team that, a decade prior, had helped usher in a new era in Japanese Professional Baseball with a triumphant tour that spurned on the two league system, proved somewhat prescient.

After being released from the Reds in 1963, he received several offers from NPB, including one from the Hawks.  He settled with the Braves, and quickly regretted not taking up the Hawks offer after witnessing the close fences at their home park.  Though he may have challenged Sadaharu Oh for some home run crowns with the Hawks, he still hit 36 to come in second in the Pacific League in 1964, 5 behind legendary slugger Katsuya Nomura. 

Credited with introducing the hard slide to the Japanese professional ranks, his skill and leadership, along with some fine pitching from Takao Kajimoto and Tetsuya Yoneda, helped turn the Braves from perennial cellar dwellers into champions.  Having never appeared in the post season in the US, Spencer helped the Braves to consecutive pennants in '67-'68. He was awarded the 'Outstanding Player' award for the '67 Series and the 'Leading Hitter' award in '68. The Braves would return again in 1969 as well, though by then Spencer was back in Wichita.

The team invited him back as a coach in 1971, and, though he showed up overweight with no intention of playing, his coaching duties quickly improved his physique to the point where the team asked him to become a player-coach.  The Braves would go on to another back-to-back pennant run with player-coach Spencer , though they could never clinch a Series victory against the powerful Yomiuri Giants.

Saturday, October 29, 2016

Diamond Diplomacy

A new documentary now in production called Diamond Diplomacy: U.S. Japan Relations Through A Shared Love Of Baseball needs your support!

Go over and see what IndieWire and Rafu Shimpo have to say and then please donate....

Sunday, May 22, 2016

1950 Shake Up Part 1: 1949

The 2016 Japan Series is still a whole season away, but the 2015 Series, between the Swallows and the Hawks, ended last fall after 5 games and the Hawks Victorious.  The Hawks were part of the original post war league, while the Swallows began life as an expansion team when the two league system of Central and Pacific Leagues was born in 1950.  Some great comments from NPB Card Guy on a post  last year led me to investigate a little more thoroughly the development of the two league system in Japan, taking us back 65 years...

Yuasa Sadao, nearly 50 years old, as old as the 20th century itself, pitched a throwaway game in November of 1950 against another half-centenarian, Shinji Hamasaki (right), as the rest of his teammates prepared for the first Japan Series.  His team, the Orions, were an expansion team who, the previous year, had been a semi-pro team on which Sadao had been involved ever since his days as a star at Meiji University.  The game against Hamasaki and the Braves on the last day of the season represented the end of the first century, setting the stage for the second half, in which the gestation period of baseball in Japan gave way to the complete professional and consumer entity it had already become in the West.  It would be Sadao's only inning of professional pitching, and, though he and Hamazaki would meet again two years later on the field (as coaches) during the Heiwadai incident, his brief role in professional baseball serves as a perfect bookend.

The 1950 Japan Series was to be the final contest of the first season of two-league competition in the history of Japanese professional baseball, The Orions were set to face the Shochiku Robins, another expansion team, in a very late, cold Japan Series that was to be the culmination of two years of wrangling, discussion, debate, shenanigans, wheeling, dealing, compromise and success in forming the system that exists to this day in Japanese baseball.

In the beginning, there was tournament style play. Between the founding of the league in 1936, and the final season in 1944 before the short hiatus brought upon by the final stages of the war, the single league system sufficed for the Japanese baseball loving public, the owners, players, and stakeholders.

That system had been founded after the development of the Yomiuri Giants from an all star team facing the 1934 touring Americans, to a barnstorming team traveling across North America, and into one of the founding seven teams of Japanese Professional Baseball.

Occupied Japan in 1946 was a place of hardship, rebuilding, sorrow and, in many places even starvation.  However, baseball returned in both amateur and professional form, with the new spring. That same pre-war league, now slightly modified, sanctioned and encouraged by the US Occupation leadership, saw a slow return to pre-war form, with additional support from the occupation forces and American influence.

As the seasons became longer and the Japanese fans slowly shed the hardships of the post-war landscape, the league became more and more profitable.  In addition, the occupation army was hungry for anything that tasted of home, and, though they could at times be rowdy and disrespectful, American servicemen attended in droves. The growing Japanese industry took notice.

Additionally, the post-war talent became stronger.  Those who survived the war returned from foreign battlefields.  POW camp and work camp survivors joined any of those who had stayed at home, or those whose kamikaze number had yet to be selected by August of 1945.  As normalcy crept back into their lives, these men gravitated back to the ball field stronger and more determined than ever to succeed.

There was the emergence of popular players and rivalries, such as that of Tetsuharu Kawakami, the God of Batting, with his"red bat", and Hiroshi Oshita with his"blue bat" (right).  They added color to one of the few forms of entertainment that those stricken with the hardships of post-war life could enjoy.  The game's popularity was was soaring.

So much so that several businessmen sought to capitalize on that popularity by introducing some competition in the vein of the Federal League in 1914.  The new league opened for business in March of 1947 with four teams.  The minimal team number, dearth of post-war attendance, and lack of recognition by the main professional league, led to it's dissolution less than a year later.

Though the immediate post-war environment couldn't yet support two leagues, by the second half of the 1948 season, the profitability of professional baseball had become more than apparent. Several national companies, including the Mainichi Shimbun, which had fielded semi-pro industrial league teams in the post war years, now wanted to field pro teams and share in the profits.  The desire among Japanese companies was growing.  Despite the Admission Tax, which was a 60% tax paid to the occupation government, entry into the league was sure to bring in as much money available in occupied Japan.

Enter Matsutaro Shoriki.  Shoriki had been the owner of the Yomiuri Shimbum and had organized the Japanese All Star team that played against Ruth and company in 1934 tour.  The core of that team would go on, under the ownership of Shoriki, to become the Yomiuri Giants.

Before the beginning of the 1949 season, negotiations had already begun to include all of the companies clamoring to get in on the profits that would, eventually, roll in.  By February of '49, Shoriki, recently cleared as a war criminal by the occupation government, was appointed honorary president of the federation that would become the professional league in place today.

As the 1949 season got under way, there were eight teams set to play roughly 138 games, after which the Yomiuri Giants would run away with the pennant, 16 games ahead of the  2nd place Hankyu Braves.  Almost every previous batting and pitching record was matched or topped. Fumio Fujimura [left] led the league with 46 home runs and 142 RBI.

Chusuke Kizuka's 59 stolen bases was the second most ever, trailing Kawanishi's record set the previous year. Karao Betto set a record with 129 runs scored. Victor Starrfin won 27 games and Shissho Takesue [below] of the Hawks led all pitchers with 183 strikeouts.  Fujimura took MVP and Hideo Fujimoto of the Giants won the Sawamura Award.

A competitive, stat heavy season, overflowing with post-war talent, in which the perennial favorites won the championship confirmed the need for a new system - more competition and and a championship series would only improve upon a stellar product.   Not only was the league exceeding expectations but fans were getting everything they wanted.

Shoriki, and all plans to expand professional baseball, developed under the watchful eye, and governing hand, of the Allied Occupation of Japan.  The SCAP (Supreme Commander for Allied Forces) and it's commander General MacArthur, had established, in addition to the military tribunal and Allied Council, a civilian section of the occupation forces.  Made up of general accounting, general procurement, government, natural resources, public health and welfare, statistics, civil communications, civil information, civil intelligence civil property and civil transportation, there was, in addition, an economic and scientific section headed up by Maj. Gen. W. F. Marquat.  Marquat's aide de camp was Cappy Harada, a Hawaiian native Nisei who had played baseball with many Japanese natives and was charged by MacArthur with reestablishing professional baseball in Japan in 1946. The civilian section would keep a close tabs on Shoriki and prevent him from obtaining too much power too quickly.

According to his comments to Rob Fitts' in "Remembering Japanese Baseball", in addition to overseeing the return to professional baseball  in 1946 during the occupation, Harada had a hand in the development of the two league system as well.  "In the late 1940's, Mr. Shoriki asked me "How come our baseball isn't getting stronger like the Major Leagues?"I said, "Mr. Shoriki, there's a simple answer.  You have to form two leagues and have a Japanese World Series.  Then, everybody will be fighting for something, and that will foster competition.  Then, Japanese baseball will get stronger." Mr. Shoriki said, "Let's have a meeting on it." The meeting took place at a restaurant in Osaka.  At the meeting were Mr. Shoriki, Ryuji Suzuki [the president of the league], Mr. Nagata [the movie magnate], and Prince [Naruhiko] Higashikuni.  We discussed it and decided that it was a good idea.  I hate to take credit for it but I think I was responsible for creating the two leagues."

Despite Harada's words, Matsuro Shoriki most likely saw it as his own initiative.  Masaichi Nagata, film producer, owner of the Daiai Stars and future President of the Pacific League, also saw the two league system as his idea.  However, Harada's description of the meeting in the Osaka restaurant (which included both Shoriki and Nagata), in addition to the many meetings that would be held throughout the summer and fall, suggest that it was a group effort.  By April, Shoriki was leading the group in a more official capacity,while debate continued on how to structure a new, two-league system.
The new league organization was officially announced on April 16th, when Shoriki said, through the AP, that he "hoped to accomplish at least three things: build up two major leagues like the American and the National in the United States; build more baseball stadiums, and get General MacArthur's approval to invite an American baseball team to Japan next fall."

Membership applications from companies aiming to participate in the expanded league were numerous throughout the following months: the Mainichi Shimbun, Kintetsu, Kyoto Shimbun, Kumagai Gumi Co., Ltd., Japan National Railways, Shochiku, Ocean Fishing, Nagoya Railroad, Nishi-Nippon Railroad Co., Ltd., West newspaper, Seibu Railway, and others.

With the 1949 season waning, Mainichi, Kintetsu, and Nishi-Nippon Railroad Co., Ltd. became part of the forming league by the end of September. 

Only a few days later, on the second to last day of September, a conference was held during which representatives of the current teams raised objections to expanding the league. They were voted down, and the new association moved towards a final vote at a meeting after the end of the season in December.

Also set for the post-season was the first visit from a US professional team since the 1934 tour. As Shiriki had explained, the owners wished to add legitimacy to the new league with a visit from a Major League team.  SCAP saw it as a good idea as well, but attempts to convince a Major League team fell through. Cappy Harada, already involved in the organization of the new leagues, was empowered by Gen. MacArthur to supervise a tour of Japan by the San Francisco Seals.

Cappy, in turn, contacted his old friend Lefty O'Doul, who still retained a great deal of popularity from his time in Japan in 1934.  The tour was arranged with the assistance of baseball writer Sotaru Suzuki, O'Doul's friend and organizer of the 1934 tour.

The Seals would play seven games against various amateur and professional Japanese All-Star squads, and against US Air Force and other US military All-Star squads. The tour would be the cherry on top of a great year for Japanese baseball.

By the end of the 1949 season, the receipts confirmed what all of these 'stakeholders' had been excited for.  The league had drawn over four million fans during the '49 season, a 25% increase over the '48 season.  However, each team posted a loss except for the Giants, who claimed simply to break even. The Tigers, though finishing in the second division, made almost enough to break even.  This may have been the result of the “Admission Tax” (mentioned above) paid by all Japanese companies to the occupation government of 60%, cutting into the 1.15 million in gross receipts for the league. The NY Times reported that Columbia University Prof. Carl Shoup's recommendation of reducing the admission tax was set to be enacted into law by the Japanese National Legislature, which would ease the burden on the new league.

The 1949 Tigers most likely drew so many fans as much due to their location as because of the star studded product they fielded.  Despite finishing in the second division, 20 games out of first, the Tigers fielded one of the most talented teams in the league.  Fujio Fujimura was only a few batting points short of winning a triple crown, and player-manager Bozo Wakabayashi led the pitching staff with a 3.29 ERA.

The stars of that team, including Wakabayashi [above, left], Karao Betto, Shosei Go and Takeshi Doigaki, would go on to shake up the new system and lead a new team, in a new league, to the 1950 pennant.

In October, the Seals arrived in Japan to a parade on the Ginza.  To quote Cappy Harada: "One of the highlights was at the opening ceremonies when I had General MacArthur's permission to raise the Japanese flag and play the anthem at the same time. It was the first time after the War that the Japanese flag had been raised together with the Stars and Stripes, so it was a very historical moment.  The Japanese people were very surprised, and a lot of them were moved to tears."  

The tour would eventually attract over 400,000 fans and contribute greatly to the popularity of professional baseball in post-war Japan.

On the day that the San Francisco Seals landed in Japan for the 1949 tour, Shogi Uno, President of the Yomiuri Giants, was meeting with MLB Commissioner Happy Chandler during the World Series in New York.  He was seeking advice on the inevitable expansion of the current pro system in Japan.  According to Uno, "6 new clubs want[ed] to horn in on the gravy."  Chandler responded with an old axiom borrowed from Benjamin Franklin - "If you don't hang together, you will all hang separately."

By December, the stage was set for the dissolution of the one league system that had subsisted since 1936, and the beginning of an Americanized system that would persist for the next 60 plus years. It was also set for new rivalries and loyalties. Continued in Part 2....

Monday, January 18, 2016

Hall of Fame Class of 2016

     The Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Tokyo today announced that Masaki Saitoh, Kimayasu Kudoh, Takizo Matsumoto, Masatake Yamanaka, and Kihachi Enomoto have been elected as the 2016 Hall of Fame Class.
     Enomoto (left) led the last year's expert ballot of non-electees with 66 votes, but his election is long overdue.  It's possible that Enomoto, a private man who, before his death in 2012, refused to participate with the Meikyuki despite his 2000 career hit qualifications, was snubbed by voters for being an outsider. Groomed by Sadaharu Oh's famed teacher Hiroshi Arakawa, Enomoto was the Rookie of the Year in 1955, an award he cherished, possibly because of Arakawa's guidance. For most of his career, Enomoto hit in the 3-hole, setting up cleanup hitter, and fellow Hall of Famer, Kazuhiro Yamauchi. Not content to support his teammate with a great average and OBP, Enomoto also led the league in Hit By Pitch in three seasons.
     Yamauchi and Enomoto would go on to play together as members of the All Star team that faced the St. Louis Cardinals before leading the Orions to the pennant in 1960.  That year Enomoto won the first of his two batting crowns.  Like Oh (pictured in the upper left corner of the card on the right, diagonal from Enomoto, standing on the steps), Enomoto was blessed with both talent and strong work ethic, building his own batting cage at home after a year long slump and returning to win another crown in 1966 with a .351 average.
     No slouch in the field, he won 9 First Nines and 12 All Star selections as a first baseman, setting a record for fielding percentage in 1968.  That year he also continued a two season errorless streak at First. He retired with 2314 hits, 246 home runs and a .298 career average.
     Both Jim Allen and Japanese Baseball Cards have great posts on Enomoto that are worth reading.

     Kudoh (left, with the Gians), with 76.6 percent of the vote, was only the fourth first-ballot Hall of Famer (after Victor Starffin, Sadaharu Oh, and Hideo Nomo).  Saitoh (below), a former MVP and three time Sawamura Award winner, was just shy of election last year, but was elected by a comfortable margin, However, no other candidates were within nearly 75 votes.
     Takizo Matsumoto will be enshrined due to his administrative work with all levels of baseball, including the 1949 San Francisco Seals tour of Japan, while Masatake Yamanaka's career in University and Industrial baseball earned him a plaque.

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